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Jul 20, 2022

What You Need to Know About Bone Cancer

Posted by Dr Manu Bora

When cells multiply uncontrollably, cancer develops. Cancerous cells can develop in any part of the body and spread to other areas. Bone cancer is a rare type of cancer that develops when cells in the bone begin to proliferate uncontrollably.

Primary bone malignancies are tumours that originate in the bones. Cancers of this sort are rare. The majority of bone cancers begin elsewhere and move to the bones. Bone metastasis, often known as secondary bone cancer, is a condition in which cancer spreads to other bones.

Types:

    • Chondrosarcoma
      • Ewing sarcoma
        • Osteosarcomas Symptoms

Bone cancer can cause the following signs and symptoms:

    • Bone discomfort
      • Swelling and tenderness near the afflicted area
        • Weakened bone, which can lead to fracture
          • Fatigue
            • Unintentional weight loss.

            When should you consult a physician?

            If you or your kid have bone pain that: 

              • comes and goes
                • gets worse at night
                  • isn't relieved by over-the-counter pain medicines, schedule an appointment with your doctor.

                  Causes

                  Unknown factors cause most bone malignancies. Hereditary factors have been connected to a small percentage of bone malignancies, whereas previous radiation exposure has been linked to others.

                  Bone cancer has several types

                  Bone tumours are classified according to the type of cell from which they originated.

                    • Osteosarcoma: Which is the most prevalent type of bone cancer. The most frequent kind of bone cancer is osteosarcoma. The malignant cells in this tumour cause the bone to form. This type of bone cancer mainly affects children and young people, and it usually affects the bones of the leg or arm. Osteosarcomas can develop outside of the bones in very uncommon cases (extraskeletal osteosarcomas).
                      • Chondrosarcoma: The second most frequent kind of bone cancer is chondrosarcoma. Cancerous cells make cartilage in this tumour. Chondrosarcoma commonly affects the pelvis, legs, or arms in middle-aged and older adults.
                        • Ewing sarcoma: This is a type of sarcoma that develops in the bone. Children and young adults typically develop Ewing sarcoma tumours in the pelvis, legs, or arms.

                        Factors that are at risk

                        Although the exact ethology of bone cancer is unknown, scientists have discovered several risk factors, including:

                          • Genetic disorders: That are passed down through the generations Li-Fraumeni syndrome and hereditary retinoblastoma are two rare genetic diseases that have been linked to an increased risk of bone cancer in families.
                            • Bone disease called Paget's: Paget's disease of the bone, which is most common in the elderly, can increase the chance of bone cancer later in life.
                              • Cancer treatment using radiation: large doses of radiation, such as those used in cancer radiation therapy, raise the risk of developing bone cancer.

                              Diagnosis

                              Bone tumours can be diagnosed using imaging tests to assess their location and size and whether they have migrated to other parts of the body. Your specific signs and symptoms determine the imaging tests that are advised.

                                • CT scans
                                  • MRI scans
                                    • PET scans
                                      • X-rays

                                      Biopsies by needle or surgery

                                      A procedure to extract a sample of tissue from the tumour (biopsy) for laboratory testing may be recommended by your doctor. Your doctor can use testing to determine whether the tissue is malignant and, if so, what form of cancer you have. It can also tell whether the tumour cells are rapidly or slowly developing.

                                        • Inserting a needle through your skin and into a tumour are two types of biopsy procedures used to diagnose bone cancer. During a needle biopsy, your doctor will put a tiny hand into your skin and guide it into cancer. Small fragments of tissue from the tumour are removed with the needle by your doctor.
                                          • A tissue sample is removed for testing by surgery. Your doctor will create an incision in your skin and remove the entire tumour or a portion of it during a surgical biopsy.

                                          Your medical team will have to prepare carefully to determine the sort of biopsy you require and the specifics of how it should be conducted. Doctors must execute the biopsy so that it does not interfere with future bone cancer surgery. As a result, before your biopsy, ask your doctor for a referral to a group of experts who have a lot of experience with bone tumours.

                                          Conclusion

                                          Surgery is usually used to remove malignant tumours. Surgical treatment is frequently combined with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

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